Goldendale Washington – Revisited

The big sign along Highway 97 just south of this little town in Washington State proudly proclaims: Welcome to Goldendale, The Golden Gate to the Evergreen State. This is quite a motto to live up to, and this has been the motto for the community for as long as I can remember, and I go back a while.

I was born in Goldendale in 1953. I went to the primary school when it was still a school, now it's a church. I remember when Highway 97 used to run through the heart of town. As a teenager we used to sit on the front porch of the old Hall Hotel and watch the traffic go by. This is now a vacant lot and the highway passes on the outskirts of town.

There used to be a pool hall, The Club, for the teenagers to hang out in and learn the game in a decent environment. Jim, the proprietor, did not tolerate any misbehavior and we knew it. We used to respect Jim because he told you like it was. Kids my age needed to hear that.

What ever happened to the Star Theater? Many afternoon and evening were spent there watching old Vincent Price movies. In fact I saw my first movie there. The Tingler! I can still remember how scared I was. This was the place where you could hold hands with the girl you liked. Put your arm around her and learn about dating and experience your first true love. Just like in the movies.

Hours were spent Trout fishing in the Little Klicitat River, Bloodgood Creek and at Bowman Creek. A day trip to the Columbia River 20 miles to the south for a picnic, fishing or swimming. Maybe go a little further west to Horsethief Lake to spend the day.

Days were while away lying in the sun at the swimming pool. Long gone from it's original location but at least it was relocated to another part of town and not simply forgotten .. Growing up here without a pool to swim in is incomprehensible. At least the way I remember it.

The winters spent ice skating on the frozen over Little Klickitat River. sledding down Fairgrounds Hill, hickey-bobbing behind the slow moving cars on the snow packed streets.

No there was never a lack of entertainment while growing up in Goldendale.

I remember Radke Motors, the Dodge dealer in town when I was growing up. Sitting in that 68 Dart GTS on the show room floor was an incredible experience for a car crazy young man. A friend of mines father bought that actual car and I ever got to drive it! There was also a Chevrolet dealer there. If I remember right it was called Sunset Chevrolet. I may be wrong on that one. They did not like the kids drooling over the new cars in the showroom so we did not go in there much. There was never any Jeep dealers or any Ford dealers that I can remember. Now you can not buy a new car in Goldendale .

The adults were not left out either. There was the Town Tavern, The Top Hat Tavern, The Rialto Club, The Evergreen Cafe, The Simcoe Cafe, and the American Legion Hall all within one block of each other. To sober up and chow down after a night downtown they could congregate out at the Oasis Cafe on the edge of town. The Top Hat and The Simcoe are the only two establishments of this type left down town now. The Simcoe is the only one in it's original location.

I moved from Goldendale in 1972. The lure of big money working as a welder in the Puget Sound Region was to much to resist. I gave up the home of my youth for over 35 years while I made a life for myself in the city. My life went well but I always missed the pace of life there. The memories.

Now I have returned to spend despite the rest of my life in this area. To die as I was born. To be put to rest with generations of relatives.

Things have really changed here. It's not at all as I remember it. Standing in some of the exact same places I stand nearly 40 years ago is some powerful stuff. As I was walking around town many memories were rekindled. Emotions that I had not experienced for years resurfaced. At times I was nearly overwhelmed by the flood of memories and emotions.

I do not think Goldendale is any worse of a place for a kid to grow up in today. Just different. From an adults point of view things always look different. I guess I need to get together with some of the young people, sometimes the children of relatives that I so long ago lost contact with, and get their perspective on growing up in here in the 2000's. I more than likely would be quite enlightened.

Industry has come and gone in this area. There were some boom times when aluminum manufacturing came to the region. Lot's of good high paying jobs. Then they closed down and the good jobs disappeared. Goldendale Wa real estate was a hot item for a while despite the real estate market has slowed down considering in the last couple of years. There seems to be an influx of retirement age people that are the prime Goldendale real estate customers now. Money from out of town folks looking for a nice place to retire.

The local newspaper, The Goldendale Sentinel, is usually filled with local real estate ads. There is no shortage of real estate for those with the money to buy. What there is in the paper is a shortage of help wanted ads.

Many web sites promote this town as a tourist and sportsman's paradise. These are very informative web sites that explain the past, present and future of this little city from a different perspective than I am able to. Mine is of childhood memories jolted by the face of a reality forty years in the future. The old adage that "the more things change the more they stay the same" is really being tested here.

This city is steeped in Washington history. Much of it involves my great great grandsparents and their descendants. I am historically tied to the success of Goldendale.

If any town in America describes to be prosperous it is this one. That is why I have chosen to return for my golden years. I employ several websites and have given the city's name to my vitamin sales page. I just wanted to have a piece of Goldendale in the 2000's. I want to spend my money here. I want to participate as an adult not dream as a child.

Lake Winnipesaukee and the MS Mount Washington

Glittering within New Hampshire's Lakes Region, itself created by the likes of Little Squam, Silver, Squam, Waukewan, and Winnisquam lakes, is Lake Winnipesaukee, one of the three largest to lie within the borders of a single state. And plying it for three-quarters of a century is its flagship, the "M / S Mount Washington." A cruise on this very, and venerable, symbol is obligatory for becoming acquainted with the area.

Sandwiched between volcanic Belknap and Ossipee mountains, the glacially-formed and spring-fed lake was first discovered by white men in 1652 when surveyors dispatched by the Massachusetts Colony to determine its northern boundaries realized that the point they thought lay three miles up the Merrimack River . Embarking on a secondary expedition in a sailboat, they reached the village of Aquadoctan, then the largest Indian community in the area, located in the north and west foothills.

The point itself, marked by a plaque on today's Endicott Rock, stands in present-day Weirs Beach, named after the triangular, rock-and-log-fishing trap found nearby. The 72-square-mile lake of Winnipesaukee, with a 25-mile length, one- to 15-mile width, and 182.89-mile shore line, equally derives its name from an Indian word which has several translations, including "the smile of the great spirit, "" beautiful water in a high place, "and even" smiling water between hills. "

Encircled by the major port towns of Alton Bay, Center Harbor, Meredith, Wolfeboro, and Weirs Beach, and embarked on 274 habitable islands, it is a magnet for summer tourists, offering an array of accommodation types, restaurants, shops, water sports, and boating activities.

Because of its size and its number of communities, intra-lake transportation had been vital and integral to its existence, whether it be for passengers, freight, or mail, since surface, lake-perimeter conveyance, particularly during pre-motorized days, had was laboriously slow.

The first such aquatic surface vehicle combined the buoyancy of a hull with the horsepower of the actual animal. Two such horses, positioned at its aft treadmill on an open, 60 to 70-foot boat, turned its side paddle wheels as they trotted, producing a two-mph speed.

Further integrating travel models, railroads strategically positioned stations next to steamboat docks, facilitating passenger exchange.

One of the lake's first such boats, the 96-foot-long, 33-foot-wide "Belknap," was inaugurated into service at Lake Village in 1833, propelled by a retrofitted sawmill steam engine. Redirected onto rocks by gale force winds eight years later, it sank from sight.

Succeeded by what became a virtual symbol of the area, it passed its wake to the "Lady of the Lake." Constructed by the Winnipesaukee Steamboat Company in 1849, the 125-foot-long boat was launched from Lake Village and transported 400 passengers during its maiden voyage to the Weirs, Center Harbor, and Wolfeboro.

But even the "Lady of the Lake" could not covet the crown earned by its competitor, the "Mount Washington," which became reining queen after the elderly lady herself had been retired in 1893.

Powered by a single, 42-inch-diameter piston which generated 450 hp, the wooden hulled, side-wheel steamer was launched in 1872 from Alton Bay and exceeded 20-mph cruise speeds.

Technology climbed a step on the "Mineola." Constructed in 1877 in Newburgh, New Hampshire, it was both the first propeller-as opposed to paddle wheel-steamer and the first to have been large enough to carry both passengers and cargo.

What was to become the end of the "Mount Washington's" long, illustrious career in the 1920s only became its beginning. The Boston and Maine Company, its owner, withdrew from service, but Captain Leander Lavallee, unable to accept the icon's demise, purchased it and operated lake excursions for tourists during the summer months until even this resuscitation abruptly lost its air when a fire unexplainably eruted at the Weirs train station and spread toward the dock where it had been moored only two days before Christmas in 1939, reducing it to a mostly submerged char and ending its skilled in the very water which, for 67 years, had ironically given it life .

Still undeterred, Lavallee could not see its name sink with it. Citing the $ 250,000 of an all-new design as prohibited, he embarked on a search for a second-hand "Mount Washington II" replacement instead that was extremely located on Lake Champlain in the form of the "Chateaugay." Built in 1888, the iron-hulled, side-wheel steamer, owned by the Champlain Transportation Company, had been operated between Burlington, Vermont, and Plattsburgh, New York.

The $ 20,000 price did not pose an obstacle, but the 150 miles of surface transport to its new Lake Winnipesaukee home did. Since he only needed the hull, he reduced it to 20 severed sections and transported them on flatbed rail cars on April 3, 1940. It only provided part of Lavallee's intended flapship.

Insisting on no longer manufactured steam engines, he acquired a second boat, the "Crescent III," for $ 25,000, cannibalizing it and transplanting its vital, engine, boiler, shaft, and propeller arteries into its new aquatic creation.

After an extensive process of naval engineering symbiosis, the reconstructed, repackaged, twin-screw "Mount Washington II" was baptized with Lake Winnipesaukee waters when it was floated out at Lakeport on August 12, 1940.

In sheer size, this hybrid, given birth by two parental shoes that had never even met each other, was slated to rein supreme-and long. Stretching 205 feet from bow to stern, it weighed 500 tons, was propelled by two screws, and featured a 35-foot beam and seven-foot draft.

According to its 1941 summer timetable, it offered exactly the type and style of service Lavallee had envisioned for the original steamboat's successor. It operates two daily round trip excursions, except on Sundays, on the 65-mile run from the Weirs at 08:00 and 13:00, calling at Bear Island, Center Harbor, Wolfeboro, and Alton Bay. Passenger fares were set at $ 1.00.

As the venerable and seemingly timeless symbol of Lake Winnipesaukee, which reflected Lavallee's almost-infinite vision, it however ceased to sail, nor evolve. Indeed, its hybrid assembly would only characterize its continual dry dock surgery.

In the spring of 1946, for instance, it was retrofitted with two, 615-hp Enterprise diesel engines, facilitating the conversion of all previous steam equipment to electrical, and visibility was improved with the elevation of the wheel house from its former second to a current third deck location.

Five years later, removal of its boat deck enabled passengers to be accommodated on the now reconfigured third deck.

Yet, its most extensive reconfiguration, mimicking its very hull-sectioned birth, occurred on October 31, 1982 at its Center Harbor shipyard and winter headquarters, when the Winnipesaukee Flagship Corporation, its current owner and operator, once again sliced ​​it in half, just forward of its engine room bulkhead, and inserted a 24-foot, prefabricated hull section, increasing its overall length to 230 feet.

The elongated ship, accommodating 1,250 passengers on four decks with a nine-foot draft and weighing 750 tons, was refloated on April 30, 1983 after six months of reconstruction facilitated by the Marine Railway specifically built for this purpose as far back as 1949. Crewed by 15, the boat, previously designated the "MV Mount Washington" – for "motor vessel" – now carried the "MS" -or "motor ship" -prefix. It could almost have been called the "Mount Washington III." In order to cater to its length and gross weight increases, the Weirs Beach dock facilities had been modified.

Subsequently retrofitted with clean-burning, EPA-approved CAT engines in 2010, this indisputable flag of Lake Winnipesaukee had been able to reach almost 16-knot speds.

Principally docked at Weirs Beach, Laconia, the Winnipesaukee Flagship Corporation's headquarters for passenger embarkation just off Route 3, it offers a single daily, two-and-a-half-hour round trip from mid-May to mid-October, with a second during the high summer season. Morning departs permission visits to Alton Bay, Meredith, or Wolfeboro, with return service in the afternoon.

Sunday brunch, holiday, and theme-related sailings, such as for birthdays, reunions, anniversaries, and weddings, include meals, entertainment, and even overnight accommodations.

Weis Beach itself tracks its origins to 1736 when the first recorded structure, a log fort, rose from the hitherto untouched area, and the first rail link, integral to the country's westward expansion movement and the Gold Rush fever that mostly filled the air with delusional dollar signs, followed more than a century later. A rudimentary station, facilitating transportation mode interchange, enabled passengers to continue their journey by steamer at the Weirs, located on the lake's western shore.

A remnant of this rail travel takes its current form as the Weirs Railroad Station, only steps above the dock-leading ramp, and the single track, now plied by the one- and two-hour tourist excursions to Meredith and Laconia undertaken by the Winnipesaukee Scenic Railroad during the summer months, had once been in triplicate and been used by the White Mountain Division of the Boston and Maine Railroad.

The quad-deck "M / S Mount Washington," transformed into a multiple-facility luxury liner, sports the Victorian-style Steamboat Lounge, complete with a dance floor, as well as the engine room and galley, on its lower deck. A second dance floor is located in the Main Salon above, along with the Purser's Station, a gift shop, a bar, and the Fantail Grille. The Promenade Deck features open seating in its bow, the Captain's Lounge, a snack bar, the Flagship Lounge with a bar for alcoholic beverages, and yet a third dance floor. The Observation Deck, as its design implications, offers open, mid- and aft-seating for optimum views.

Mooring release, preceded by a silence-shattering wail of the boat's horn, unleashes it for its autonomous navigation as the 230-foot, four-decked behemoth, clearly wearing its crown as queen of the lake, disappointments itself from the hopelessly tiny dock, before it leaves the Weirs Beach area by means of the Eagle Island Channel, itself sandwiched between Eagle and Governor's islands.

Stonedam Island, the first to be passed on the boat's left and centerpied by the 112-acre Stonedam Island Wildlife Preserve, had once been connected to Meredith Neck by means of a stone causeway.

The lake's nautical history, at least in distance, is never far from the "Mount Washington's" course; indeed, the journey is like a return to it. Dolly Nichols, who had once operated a hand-powered ferry between Meredith Neck and Bear Island, is commemorated by a cluster of small islands bearing her name.

Bear Island itself, the lake's second largest, serves as one of the US Mail Boat's scheduled stops. As its name exemplifies, the boat itself, created by an act of Congress in 1916, is the country's only full-fledged floating post office with the power to cancel mail. Its official address is "RFD No. 7, Laconia, New Hampshire."

Several vessels have encompassed the post office fleet. The first, the "Dolphin," was built in 1885 and was followed by the more ambitious, single-propeller, 100-passenger, 65-foot-long "Uncle Sam" constructed 18 years later and converted to diesel propulsion in 1945. It provided faithful service until its retirement in 1961. The even larger "Uncle Sam II" that replaced it, a former Navy PT Boat, featured a 75-foot length, a 20-foot beam, an 80-ton weight, and a 150- passenger capacity. The similarly-dimensioned, diesel-engined "Sophie C," itself the "Uncle Sam II's" replacement, sports dual decks and a snack bar and is open to tourists wishing to taste this unique slice of lake life during its scheduled, mid-June to mid-September mail runs. Like the "Mount Washington" itself, it is owned by the Winnipesaukee Flagship Corporation of Weirs Beach and Center Harbor.

Floating in the mid of beauty expressed by islands, coves, bays, and mountains, the "Mount Washington" offers a glimpse of the White Mountains' Presidential Range, including its Squam, Sandwich, and Ossipee peaks. The latter sports 2,975-foot Mount Shaw.

One Mile Island, reflecting its distance from Center Harbor on the lake's northern tip, is the winter home of the "Mount Washington," where it is subjected to its annual maintenance, inspection, and repair.

Becky's Garden, little more than a jagged, rocky outcrop seeming to balance a wooden, two-story house atop it, is the lake's smallest charted island.

The profile of Mount Washington, at 6,288 feet the highest in the northeast, looms skyward in the distance.

Compared to Becky's Garden, Long Island loves on the other end of the size spectrum. Connected to the mainland's Moultonborough Neck by an automobile-accessible bridge, it ranks as its largest.

Carving its quickly dissipating trench into the water, which average average varies between 35 and 90 feet, the "Mount Washington" penetrates the 12-mile-long by five-mile-wide Broads area, its largest, unobstructed expanse.

The lake, a mirror-like all water bodies-of the sky, seldom reflects the same picture. On a sunny day at high noon, for instance, it appears an illustrious blue. On semi-overcast days, it wears a deep blue velvet coat. During densely cloudy times, it looks as if it was covered with a dirty-white quilt, while its pine-blanketed islands appear as if they were immersed in the ethereal white mist probablyingly worn by their needles.

On board, passengers can purchase alcoholic and soft drinks at the bar. Soft pretzels and cookies are baked in the Promenade Deck snack bar. The Main Deck's Fantail Grille offers all-day breakfast, clam chowder, salads, sandwiches, bagels, hot dogs, chili, and hamburgers. During sailings with tour groups, independent passengers can often purchase a ticket for the all-inclusive buffet, which typically features salads, hot entrees, and desserts.

Turning around Sewell's Point, located on its left side, the "Mount Washington" glides into Wolfeboro Bay, entry to the port town of Wolfeboro and considered the country's oldest summer resort because of the house Colonel Governor John Wentworth built there in 1764 to mark the terminus of his Portsmouth-originating Prairie Road.

Poking its bow into the lake's southernmost point, the "Mount Washington" sails past Little Mark Island, itself the threshold to five-mile-long Alton Bay. It is flanked by the gently curved top of Mount Major.

Like Wolfeboro, Alton Bay is another of the lake's major port towns. Settled in 1710, it served as the assembly point of the original "Mount Washington" 162 years later, in 1872.

Rattlesnake Island, adopting its name from the slithering reptile that had once stayed on it, offers the highest elevation, of 390 feet.

Glendale is another of Lake Winnipesaukee's nautically significant locations. It not only houses the Marine Division of the New Hampshire Department of Safety-which oversees all of the state's lakes-but is the site of the "Lady of the Lake's" sinking, its earliest, most significant steamboat.

Incorporated as New Hampshire territory during the Revolutionary War, Governor's Island enjoyed celebrity resort status by the end of the 19thcentury.

Re-entering Eagle Island Channel, the "M / S Mount Washington" reduces its speed to a slow coast and initiates its approach to the Weirs Beach dock, returning to the area first discovered by white men in 1652 and leaving a 140-year wake behind its hull, which itself had first plied Lake Champlain waters under the name of "Chateaugay" as far back as 1888.

George Washington Forgeries

George Washington forgeries are common but almost always recognizable to the diligent and experienced document examiner. Several individuals have become rather famous in the process of forging Washington’s letters and documents. Most notably, forgers such as Joseph Cosey and Robert Spring have gained reputations as notorious forgers of Washington’s handwriting and autograph.

Joseph Cosey enjoyed defrauding autograph dealers, and sold them letters and documents that he alleged were signed by Washington and many other famous Americans. Cosey was a master craftsman at forgery, often using laid paper and iron-based inks that were commonly used in the later 1700s.

Cosey’s fabrications included pay warrants with forged signatures of Aaron Burr and George Washington on the same document. Handwritten letters from Washington from Valley Forge during the Revolutionary War that were fabricated by Cosey may be difficult to discern from authentic examples.

Perhaps Cosey’s most brazen forgery was a complete draft of the Declaration of Independence with a simulated hand of Thomas Jefferson. Cosey’s forged Declaration of Independence was sold as a fake in 1969 for $425.00. Cosey’s imitation was stunning because it appeared to be a genuine draft.

Robert Spring is also known as one of the best forgers of Washington’s handwriting and autograph. Although Spring forged signatures of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Paul Jones, and Horatio Nelson, he is ignominiously famous for his fabricated letters and documents of Washington.

Ironically, forgeries by Cosey and Spring have become collectible in their own right. Over the years they have skyrocketed in value. A Revolutionary War pass with a signature of Washington forged by Robert Spring was sold to a Philadelphia autograph dealer in the 1860s for $15; it is now worth more than $1,000.

Handwritten forgeries of Washington’s checks that Robert Spring sold in 1863 for $10 each now sell for well over $1,200. The book Money Secrets reveals key features that distinguish authentic Washington checks from those forged by Robert Spring.

George Washington forgeries by Joseph Cosey or Robert Spring can be very valuable in their own curious way. However, letters that are handwritten and signed by either Cosey or Spring are quite rare and sought by collectors because of their reputations as preeminent holograph imitators of Washington and other famous Americans.

3Rd Quarter Housing Data Shows Now Is a Good Time to Fix and Flip in Washington DC

The recent presidential election generated tremendous interest in the Washington DC area real estate market. Figures from the third quarter indicate conditions that favor investment in new and redeveloped property, including:

· Low inventory: Demand for housing outstripped supply in Q3. Strong demand in the first half of 2016 depleted available inventory, dipping to the lowest level since 2013 Q3. There is a slim 2.8-month supply of homes in the DC area, compared to a supply of 6 months when demand and supply are balanced. The lack of inventory cut the number of sales and the rise in prices. Nonetheless, year-over-year third quarter sales volume increased 4.1 percent in 2016. Best price growth occurred in the Urban Core and the Outer Suburbs of the District.

· Faster sales: On average, it took only 47 days for homes in the Washington DC area to sell during Q3 of 2016, down four days from the previous Q3 and well below the 10-year average of 66 days. The Outer Suburbs saw the steepest drop (six days) in days on market, which was most likely due to low fuel prices, low interest rates, and relatively more inventory compared to closer-in neighborhoods.

· Seller reluctance: The demand for new and redeveloped units is extremely high, in part due to the reluctance of homeowners to sell. Many owners are simply unable or unwilling to sell if their home has not appreciated enough for them to profit.

An Optimal Time to Fix and Flip

These factors point to a golden, if probability short-lived, opportunity to invest in housing through the Washington, DC region. Demand far outstrips supply, inventory remains low and houses sell quickly. Renovation of local properties would help increase the housing supply and increase prices. And the resale of those properties for a healthy profit looks promising. The new administration will be looking to stimulate growth through tax cuts, reduced regulation and job creation, conditions that typically favor higher housing prices.

The window of opportunity is also defined by the relatively low costs for labor and materials that currently apply. The fiscal stimulus promised by the new administration, which is targeting up to 4 percent annual growth in GNP, could stoke inflationary pressures, meaning a year from now it may be much more expensive to fix and flip residential property than it is today. In other words, the cost of capital may be going up.

Mead Boys and Bellarmine Girls Win Washington State Track Championships

Mead High School of Spokane, a legendary distance-running powerhouse, found a new way to win another title at the 2009 Washington State Track & Field Meet. The Panthers had exactly one individual champion-Keith Webber in the pole vault-but managed to score points in the hurdles and field events to earn 49 points and the 4A big school title as 3 other schools-Kent Meridian, Central Kitsap and Todd Beamer- all tied for runner-up with 34 apiece.

Duran Ward of Todd Beamer was a double winner in the 100 and 200 and Todd Beamer won the 4 x 100 relay, but it was not enough to carry Todd Beamer to the 4A title. Shane Moskowitz of Central Kitsap was a double winner in the 800 and 1600, but it was not enough to carry Central Kitsap to the 4A title. Joe Zimmerman of Lewis and Clark set a new state meet record with a 208-04 effort in the gavelin.

Bellarmine's Sarah Hartwell, Shaquana Logan, Midori Starks and Kelly Jacka won both the 4 x 100 and 4 x 200 relays, Jacka also won the 200 and Logan won the 100 hurdles to carry Bellarmine Prep to the Girls' 4A title with 56 points.

Andrea Geubelle of Curtis helped her team become runner-up by winning the 100-meter dash in 11.87, the long jump in 19-04 and the triple jump in 40-11.75. Kayla Stueckle of Emerald Ridge ran 42.13 in the 300 hurdles to set a new state meet record. Baylee Mires of Mead doubled in the 800 and 1600.

In the boys 3A competition, Andrew Kimpel led North Central to the title by winning the 3200 in 9: 08.39. North Central's Ben Johnson was 2nd in the 3200, and North Central finished 2-3-4 in the 1600 with Kimpel, Leon Dean and Johnson. That is called depth in the distance, and led to a state title for the Indians of Spokane.

Michael Miller of Mt. Rainier was a double winner in the 800 and 1600. Robert Hintz of Bellevue set a new state meet record with a throw of 211-00 in the gavelin.

Rainier Beach High School clobbered the competition to win the girls' 3A championship with 65 points. The Vikings' Dyneeca Adams won the 400 in 56.89, Ariele Reeves won the 300 hurdles in 43.60 and both Adams and Reeves joined Charnay Combs and Ta Pri Nelthrope in winning both the 4 x 100 and 4 x 200 relays. The 4 x 200 effort of 1: 39.49 established a new state meet record. In other 3A events, Germe Poston of Franklin Pierce was a double winner in the 100 and 200.

Lynden set a new state meet record in the 4 x 400 boys' 2A competition to win the title with 45 points. Wes Chamberlain of Ephrata set a new record in the pole vault and Nelson Westlin of Sehome set a new record in the discus.

The individual story in the 2A meet was Selah's Brett Blanshan, who set a new record by winning the 100 in 10.60 (the fastest time of the day in all divisions), won the 200 in 21.70 and anchored Selah's winning 4 x 100 relay team. Shayne Moore of Blaine, which was the team runner-up, doubled in the 110 and 300 hurdles. Miles Coats of River Ridge doubled in the high jump and triple jump.

The grils' 2A met was all about freshman Cherish Morrison of Blaine. All Morrison did was win the 100, 200 and 400, setting a new state record in the 400 with a 57.28, and then anchoring Blaine's winning 4 x 200 relay team. She was the only competitor among 6 different divisions to win 4 events.

Becca Friday of Bellingham won an 800 and 1600 double, running 5: 01.87 in the 1600 to set a new 2A record. In what is sometimes a new national record, all 16 competitors in the 1600 final broke the old state record, with the 16th place competitor beating the old mark by more than 29 seconds.

2009 Washington State Champions – Boys 4A Division

Team Winner – Mead with 49 Points – Runner-Up – 3-Way Tie Between Kent Meridian, Central Kitsap and Todd Beamer, all with 34.

100-Meter Dash – 10.81 – Duran Ward of Todd Beamer High School.

200 – 21.79 – Duran Ward of Todd Beamer. (State Record is 21.26 set by Darrell Robinson of Wilson in 1982.)

400 – 49.01 – Jacob Sealby of Wenatchee. (State Record is 45.74 set by Darrell Robinson of Wilson in 1982).

800 – 1: 52.57 – Derrick Daigre of Kent Meridian.

1600 – 4: 13.71 – Shane Moskowitz of Central Kitsap.

3200 – 8: 59.53 – Shane Moskowitz of Central Kitsap. (State Record is 8: 50.65 by Chris Lewis of Mead in 1989).

110 Hurdles – 14.23 – Steven Warner of Kentwood.

300 Hurdles – 38.46 – Adam Scalese of Kelso.

4 x 100 Relay – 42.17 – Todd Beamer (Anthony Hogan, Travis Koch, Dominique Maxie and Josh Seals.)

4 x 200 Relay – No Information Available.

4 x 400 – 3: 19.36 – Wenatchee (Cooper Helm, Chaese Sewell, Lucas Sealby and Jacob Sealby).

High Jump – 6-10.00 – Kasen Williams of Skyline.

Pole Vault – 15-06.00 – Keith Webber of Mead.

Long Jump – 24-05.00 – Justin Veltung of Puyallup.

Triple Jump – 48-01.00 – Zach Smith of Kentlake.

Shot Put – 59-04.75 – Marlyn Anderson of Snohomish.

Discus – 159-11 – Marlyn Anderson of Snohomish.

Javelin – 208-04 – Joe Zimmerman of Lewis and Clark. New State Meet Record. Broke old record of 207-10 set by Jacob Wilson of Heritage in 2008.

2009 Washington State Champions – Boys 3A Division

Team Winner – North Central with 52 – Runner-Up – Renton with 38.

100 – 10.86 – Anthony Wright of Lakes.

200 – 21.47 – Markeem Adams of West Seattle.

400 – 47.93 – Michael Berry of Rainier Beach.

800 – 1: 54.12 – Michael Miller of Mt. Rainier.

1600 – 4: 15.55 – Michael Miller of Mr. Rainer.

3200 – 9: 08.39 – Andrew Kimpel of North Central.

110 Hurdles – 14.27 – Jaakko Malmivirta of Nathan Hale.

300 Hurdles – 38.80 – Rashaun Johnson of Foster.

4 x 100 Relay – 42.51 – Foster (George Le, Sharrod Cradle, Devonte Green and Taylor Gustman).

4 x 200 Relay – No Information Available.

4 x 400 Relay – 3: 21.76 – Mt. Spokane (Chase Naccarato, Jack Cerenzia, Chris Mickeson and Jason Nokes).

High Jump – 6-07.00 – Joshua Armstrong of Mt. Rainier.

Pole Vault – 15-03.00 – Bryce Borer of Mercer Island.

Long Jump – 23-03.25 – Ronnielle Kelly-Battles of Renton.

Triple Jump – 46-01.25 – Kinsley Ojukwu of Union.

Shot Put – 59-01.50 – Andrey Levkiv of Hazen.

Discus – 175-05 – Armin Basic of Renton.

Javelin – 211-00 – Robert Hintz of Bellevue – New State Meet Record. Tied his own record set earlier in the competition.

2009 Washington State Champions – Boys 2A Division

Team Winner – Lynden with 45 – Runner-Up – Blaine with 39.

100 – 10.60 – Brett Blanshan of Selah. New State Meet Record. Blanshan broke his own record of 10.67 set earlier in the competition. His 10.60 was the fastest 100 amongst all races in all classes.

200 – 21.70 – Brett Blanshan of Selah.

400 – 49.25 – Adam Candland of Cedarcrest.

800 – 1: 55.88 – Dakota Parker of WF West.

1600 – 4: 20.72 – Tim Bradley of Blaine.

3200 – 9: 32.45 – Kevin Aubol of Ellensburg.

110 Hurdles – 14.61 – Shayne Moore of Blaine.

300 Hurdles – 38.89 – Shayne Moore of Blaine.

4 x100 Relay – 43.47 – Selah (Colin Anyan, Kyle Stone, Brendan Tice and Brett Blanshan).

4 x 200 Relay – No Information Available.

4 x 400 Relay – 3: 21.12 – Lynden (Colby Biesheuvel, Dusty Duncan, Blair Bomber and Jordan Weeks.) New State Meet Record. Broke old record of 3: 22.44 by South Widbey in 2001.

High Jump – 6-06.00 – Miles Coats of River Ridge.

Pole Vault – 15-08.00 – Wes Chamberlain of Ephrata. New State Meet Record. Tied his own record set earlier in the competition.

Long Jump – 23-03.00 – Ben Ternan of WF West. Ternan's jump exceeded the state record of 22-10.25 but was wind-aided; His jump was also 2+ feet better than his personal best.

Triple Jump – 46-06.50 – Miles Coats of River Ridge.

Shot Put – 60-01.25 – Johnathan Buchanan of East Valley-Yakima.

Discus – 172-11 – Nelson Westlin of Sehome. New State Meet Record. Broke old record of 171-00 by Steven Ayers of Sehome in 2007.

Javelin – 182-06 – Anthony Galaviz of Toppenish.

2009 Washington State Champions – Girls 4A Division

Team Winner – Bellarmine Prep with 56 – Runner-Up – Curtis with 48.

100-Meter Dash – 11.87 – Andrea Geubelle of Curtis High School.

200 – 24.24 – Kelly Jacka of Bellarmine Prep.

400 – 56.56 – Jasmine Cho of Newport-Bellevue.

800 – 2: 11.37 – Baylee Mires of Mead.

1600 – 4: 56.35 – Baylee Mires of Mead.

3200 – 10: 30.47 – Sarah Lord of Redmond.

100 Hurdles – 14.19 – Shaquana Logan of Bellarmine Prep.

300 Hurdles – 42.13 – Kayla Stueckle of Emerald Ridge. New State Meet Record. Broke old record of 42.17 by Seville Broussard of Walla Walla in 1994.

4 x 100 Relay – 47.40 – Bellarmine Prep (Sarah Hartwell, Shaquana Logan, Midori Starks and Kelly Jacka).

4 x 200 Relay – 1: 40.23 – Bellarmine Prep (Midori Starks, Kelly Jacka, Shaquana Logan and Sarah Hartwell).

4 x 400 Relay – 3: 54.55 – Mead (Alexa Banaugh, Krissy Hund, Jazmine Redmon and Baylee Mires).

High Jump – 5-10.00 – Christine Rice of Mountain View.

Pole Vault – 11-09.00 – Jessica Christian of Richland.

Long Jump – 19-04.00 – Andrea Geubelle of Curtis.

Triple Jump – 40-11.75 – Andrea Geubelle of Curtis.

Shot Put – 41-01.00 – Kayla Adams of Thomas Jefferson.

Discus – 135-04 – Gabi Dixson of Battle Ground.

Javelin – 141-04 – Brooke Randall of Eastmont.

2009 Washington State Champions – Girls 3A Division

Team Winner – Rainier Beach with 65 – Runner-Up – Columbia River with 46.5.

100 – 11.63 – Germe Poston of Franklin Pierce.

200 – 24.05 – Germe Poston of Franklin Pierce.

400 – 56.89 – Dyneeca Adams of Rainier Beach.

800 – 2: 14.95 – Madeline Rathbun of Lakeside.

1600 – 5: 08.82 – Phoebe Merritt of Mercer Island.

3200 – 11: 00.51 – Carey Parker of Seattle Prep.

100 Hurdles – 14.66 – Tanya Bjornsson of Ferndale.

300 Hurdles – 43.60 – Ariele Reeves of Rainier Beach.

4 x 100 Relay – 48.42 – Rainier Beach (Ariele Reeves, Queen Ealy, Dyneeca Adams and Charnay Combs)

4 x 200 Relay – 1: 39.49 – Rainier Beach (Ariele Reeves, Charnay Combs, Ta Pri Nelthrope and Dyneeca Adams) – New State Meet Record. Broke old record of 1: 40.95 set by the same Rainier Beach team earlier in the meeting.

4 x 400 Relay – 3: 56.48 – Camas (Sara Slayton, Megan Kelley, Seanna Pitassi and Dakota Forgey).

High Jump – 5-07.00 – Emily Corona of Shorecrest.

Pole Vault – 10-06.00 – Kaycee Smith of Mt. Spokane.

Long Jump – 17-06.50 – Diana Keller of Mt. Si.

Triple Jump – 40-08.50 – Olivia Ward of Cleveland.

Shot Put – 39-07.75 – Tiara Killmer of Bonney Lake.

Discus – 128-07 – Carolina Siofele of Union.

Javelin – 141-04 – Anna Adamko of Columbia River.

2009 Washington State Champions – Girls 2A Division

Team Winner – Blaine with 56 – Runner-Up – Sehome with 51.5.

100 – 12.32 – Cherish Morrison of Blaine – Freshman

200 – 25.24 – Cherish Morrison of Blaine – Freshman

400 – 57.53 – Cherish Morrison of Blaine – Freshman – Morrison Set a New State Meet Record, running 57.28 in the preliminaries earlier in the competition.

800 – 2: 12.46 – Becca Friday of Bellingham – Just missed the state meet record of 2: 12.43

1600 – 5: 01.87 – Becca Friday of Bellingham – Set New State Meet Record – Old Record Was 5: 54.14 by Stephanie Marcy of Sequim. All 16 finalist competitors in this race broke the old record; the 16th finisher ran 5: 24.69, 29+ seconds faster than the record.

3200 – 11: 12.41 – Shannon Porter of Hockinson. Porter, a senior, set the current state record of 10: 50.00 as a sophomore.

100 Hurdles – 14.71 – Sarah Schireman of Archbishop Murphy.

300 Hurdles – 44.51 – Niina Al-Hassan of Pullman.

4 x 100 Relay – 49.65 – Burlington-Edison (Chelsea Genther, Callie Reff, Teira Graham and Michelle Kennedy).

4 x 200 Relay – 1: 46.11 – Blaine (Breanna Adams, Kiersten Sigfusson, Cherish Morrison and Breanna Olason).

4 x 400 Relay – 4: 03.81 – Squalicum (Molley Rider, Sophie Curl, Jessica Wallace and Sheila Barton).

High Jump – 5-04.00 – Tasha Luu of Colville – Freshman.

Pole Vault – 11-00.00 – Robin Taylor of Blaine.

Long Jump – 17-03.50 – Zoe Moller of Sehome.

Triple Jump – 37-02.00 – Brandi Thomas of Elma.

Shot Put – 40-11.25 – Anna LaBeaume of Sequim.

Discus – 124-10 – Vanessa Garris of Washington.

Javelin – 151-10 – Christine Kirkwood of Othello.

Copyright © 2009 Ed Bagley

Washington’s 201 Public Courses Give Golfers Access To State’s Most Scenic Landscapes

Northwest golfers will find 201 golf courses in the state of Washington where the public is welcome; several of these locations have more than one course. Play them all, and you’ll encounter some of the state’s most beautiful landscapes. You can tee off within view of the Pacific Ocean, golf in the shadow of Mount St. Helens, the state’s most active volcano, or play in the high desert of eastern Washington.

Golfers in Washington are rewarded with gorgeous views; you can see at least one snow-capped mountain from the majority of the state’s courses. Mount St. Helens, Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams are among the most beautiful, but there are numerous other mountain peaks in this state that also provide a gorgeous backdrop for a game of golf.

Most of the land’s natural features have been worked into the designs of Washington’s golf courses, transforming natural beauty into course hazards. You can golf within view of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, next to the Columbia River and Columbia River Gorge, and alongside dozens of rivers and waterways; and like all water, it’s waiting to claim your ball. Wet encounters for this state’s golfers include rushing rivers, waterfalls, lakes, wetlands and creeks.

Course designers include Arnold Palmer, Bunny Mason, Robert Muir Graves, Robert Trent Jones, Mike Asmundson, Peter Jacobsen, Chandler Egan, Robert Cupp, William Overdorf, John Harbottle, Bob Tachell, Jack Frei and John Fought.

Multiple-hole courses are popular in Washington. In Redmond, at Willows Run Golf Club you can choose from a total of 45 holes. And, there are several courses in this state that offer 36 holes; you’ll find double 18’s in Blaine, Bremerton, Lacey and Bellevue. Triple nine-hole courses are located in Burlington, Chehalis, Port Ludlow, Fort Lewis and Puyallup. And in Kent and Tacoma they have courses with a combination of both 9 and 18 holes.

Although hundreds of golf courses have been in the planning stages for years, only a handful of new courses were built in Washington in recent years. The northern portion of Washington’s I-5 Corridor got most of those new golf courses, but Central Washington is the site of the last course opened; Suncadia Rope Rider opened in Cle Elum late in 2011.

With the opening of this course, Central Washington now has four 18-hole golf courses that are longer than 7000 yards; Eastern Washington also has four courses longer than 7000 yards.

Washington green fees vary depending on the season and time of day, but most of the state’s golf courses have times when golfers can play for discounted rates. Golfers can save more than half over regular rates by knowing when to play.

Booker T Washington's Influence on the Course of African-American Life Through Education

Booker T. Washington who had only managed to get a primary education that allowed his probationary admittance to the Hampton Institute after his emancipation from slavery through the 1865 proclamation by Abraham Lincoln, proved such an exemplary student, teacher, and speaker that the principal and founder of Hampton Samuel C. Armstrong recommended him to Alabamans who were trying to establish a school for African Americans in their state to lead them in their effort.

But Washington preferred to become a teacher first in his home town in Tinkersville, West Virginia. He served there for three years. In 1878 he left to attend Wayland Seminary in Washington DC, but stayed on for only six months. In 1879 Armstrong asked him to return to the Hampton Institute as a teacher. Washington did so.

In 1881, upon the recommendation of Hampton University founder Samuel C. Armstrong and Tuskegee's governing body, even though such positions had always been held by whites up until that time, he was hired as the first principal of a similar school being founded in Alabama, . the new normal school -achers' college- in Alabama called Tuskegee Institute. It was founded under a charter from the Alabama legislature for the purpose of training teachers in Alabama.

They found the energetic and visionary leader they bought in Washington. Washington since became the first principal of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. July 4, 1881, the first day of school at Tuskegee Institute, was a humble beginning, The new school was initially using space rented from a local church with two small buildings, no equipment, and very little money. The next year, Washington purchased a former plantation, which became the permanent site of the campus. He built it into a center of learning and industrial and agricultural training. in Tuskegee, Alabama. Tuskegee's program provided students with both academic and voluntary training. The students, under Washington's direction, built their own buildings, produced their own food, and provided for most of their basic necessities. The Tuskegee faculty utilized each of these activities to teach the students basic skills that they could share with African American communities through the South.

Even though Tuskegee provided an academic education and instruction for teachers, it placed more emphasis on providing young black boys with practical skills such as carpentry and masonry.Under Washington's care both the school and Washington grew to be world famous, making lasting and substantial contributions to the South and to the United States.

One of Booker Washingron's main problems was always finding enough money to keep the institution running. The support he received from the state was either generous nor stable enough to build the kind of school he wanted. So he had to raise the money himself by going on speaking tours and soliciting contributions. As head and founder of the Institute, he traveled the country unceasingly to raise funds from blacks and whites alike. Soon he became a well-known speaker. He received a lot of money from white northerners. For they were impressed with the work he was doing and his non-threatening racial views.He thus lured industrialists like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller who would donate money on a regular basis.

Booker Washington spent the rest of his life improving the school so that when he died, in 1915 the Tuskegee Institute boasted 100 buildings, 1,500 students, a variety of programs and $ 2 million. By then Tuskegee's endowment had grown to over $ 1.5 million, compared to the initial $ 2,000 annual appropriation.

The institute illustrates Washington's aspirations for his race. For during his lifetime, many African Americans who were formerly slaves and who did not have an education were provided with opportunities to learn voluntary skills and obtain an education. He thought former slaves would gain acceptance through education and financial independence. His theory was, that by providing these skills, African Americans would play their part in society so gaining acceptance by white Americans. He believed that they would ever gain full civil rights by showing themselves to be responsible, reliable American citizens.

In 1895, Washington was asked to speak at the opening of the Cotton States Exposition, an unprecedented honor for an African American. His Atlanta Compromise speech explained his major thesis, that blacks could secure their constitutional rights through their own economic and moral advancement rather than through legal and political changes. Although his conciliatory stand angered some blacks who feared it would encourage the foes of equal rights, whites approved of his views. Thus his major achievement was to win over diverse elements among southern whites, without which support the programs he envisioned and thought into being would have been impossible.

Although not everyone agreed with Booker, he became a respected leader who helped many schools and institutions gain pledges and support from the government and donors. From this position of leadership he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman for African Americans.

It was these non-threatening racial views that cave Washington the appellation "The Great Accomodater". He believed that blacks should not push to attain equal civil and political rights with whites. That it was best to concentrate on improving their economic skills and the quality of their character. The burden of improvement resting squarely on the shoulders of the black man. Occasionally they would earn the respect and love of the white man, and civil and political rights would have accrued as a matter of course. This was a very non-threatening and popular idea with a lot of whites.

Am I Eligible for Diversion in DC Superior Court, Washington, DC

What is diversion in the District of Columbia?

1st and foremost you should always explore diversion options even if you believe you are the most innocent person on the planet. You can control the out of the case. You take the control away from the government and if you complete the required course of action your case will usually get disissued.

Therefore, if you run into a criminal defense attorney who says he never receivers diversion for his client – Do not hire him.

In the District of Columbia there are 2 prosecuting entities. The US Attorney's Office for District of Columbia prosecutes most misdemeanors and felonies. The office of attorneys general's office prosecutes most traffic and misdemeanor cases.

Diversion in the District of Columbia means that the US Attorney's Office or Office of Attorney General will not violate the case if you agree to abide by certain conditions. The case is diverted from prosecution for 4 to 6 months where you the defendant agree to perform various conditions such as community service, undergo drug treatment, or mental health treatment. Some diversion options require you to plead guilty and then after certain conditions are met the plaintiff will allow you to withdraw your guilty plea after you have completed the agreed task.

Diversion options are constantly changing in the District of Columbia. You should seek an experienced lawyer who knows the ins and outs of DC Superior Court. It may not be in your best interest to hire a "big time lawyer" who does not regularly practice in Superior Court because the diversion options change regularly and notice is not publicly broadcast to the bar association. Furthermore, Counselors regularly change the diversion options based on the needs of the community.

Generally, for a defendant to be eligible for diversion options he can not be convoked of or served probation or parole for firearms offs, sex offsets (with the exception of solicitation of prostitution) or violent felony offenses within the past ten years. Please be mindful that the US attorneys and Attorney General has completed discretion and may bar an individual from diversion regardless of qualification based on other reasons.

Lastly, diversion may have immigration consequences so you need to seek a qualified criminal attorney who knows immigration policies or at least consult with an immigration attorney if you have any questions.

As always contact a lawyer to help you through this process.

Was George Washington Genuinely Short? His Mattress Was

Right after visiting a few historical websites, particularly soon after seeing the tiny matters; just one is usually left asking a question. Why is the bed so modest? As contemporary beds get larger and larger is looks odd that even presidents would have such tiny beds.

The major factor was not height that drve the bed size, but health. Very first of all, a bed mattress was not the hygienic, clean, comfortable foam and stuffing of our globe. Innerspring mattresses will not be invented till right after Planet War 1. Rather, mattresses can be filled with cotton, wool, straw, as well as other "soft" filling. Buttons along with other quilting strategies could have been employed to keep the stuffing in place. These mattresses would most likely close today's contemporary sleeping bags rather than the inner spring structures 1 sleeps on daily.

With less than ideal cleaning strategies this stuffing could most likely be infested with a variety of insects. Would a single have felt rested knowing what was probably to be in that mattress? Adults would probably sleep sitting up in bed. Hanging about the size in the home and number of rooms in it young youngsters may well even be sleeping at the end on the bed. If this sounds uncomfortable, do not forget that an additional bed mattress was usually placed for the floor at the end on the bed for the favorite servant or slave in the family.

For servants or slaves outside the home a quilt would need to suffice. Functioning slaves have been usually given 1 quilt per year. Think how long even a well made blanket would last, if it was all one particular had for bedding. Little children would sometimes not even get this ration, but would rather share those of their parents or siblings. Others inside the community may possibly attempt to sew their very own blankets, but this will be done right after functioning a full day for the masters and then any cooking or cleaning of their very own homes. Servants had been paid wages, but would most likely have been completely responsible for purchasing their very own bedding and food.

Some contemporary doctors have also noted that lying down could possibly have been viewed as harder for the heart which would have already additional susceptible to heart disease due to the rich and fatty foods prevalent in a wealthy persons diet. There may well have been completely superstitions at play too regarding laying flat on ones back in bed as being the position from the dead. Lower class persons would have obviously had to share any soft bedding that they had with the entire household making any raised bed for laying themselves out a true luxury.

So whatever the considering behind it, a single can see from historical evidence that although the bed mattress are generally quite short the folks who rested in them had been absolutely not remarkably little. Considering back to George Washington (who was a career soldier); Following Valley Forge, and also the other battle beds he slept in, would not the bed mattresses of Mount Vernon were luxurious indeed. It would not probably have mattered to him how modest they seem these days.

In Review: For Liberty and Glory: Washington, Lafayette, and Their Revolutions

Over the past year or two, I have rekindled my interest in history and some of the greatest events of the past several hundred years.

Because of my two extended visits to America I have been particularly interested in the early history of the United States, and have read numerous books charting the birth and development of that nation, and have many others I hope to read as time allows.

F or Liberty and Glory: Washington, Lafayette, and Their Revolutions by James R. Gaines deals with two of the most important revolutionary periods in American and French history, and the two principal players in both revolutions.

Across 500 pages Gaines tracks the parallel paths of George Washington, the first President of the newly formed United States, and the Marquis de Lafayette, the man who could have been the first president of the French Republic, but who denied the position.

Although I was familiar with some American place names bearing the name Lafayette and Fayetteville, and had walked along Lafayette Street in Manhattan on numerous occasions, I must admit to being completely ignorant of the Marquis de Lafayette, and the role he played in both the American and French revolutions.

I do not know if every American city or town bearing the name Fayette, Fayetteville, and Lafayette owe their title to the Marquis de Lafayette, but it is entirely possible. Certainly, innumerable streets, avenues, French and American naval vessels, educational institutions, US counties, subway stations, parks and city squares, and other landmarks do owe their names to him.

Lafayette, who full name was the jaw breaking, Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette (and who shall, for the sake of brevity, hereafter be referred to mostly as Lafayette), was a French aristocrat and military officer, who at the age of just 19 years sailed to the New World to join the American Revolutionary War against France's age-old enemy, Britain. In the process he became one of George Washington's closest aides and confidante's and one the American revolution's most well-known, and well-considered generals.

Lafayette, himself was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania, not long after his arrival in America, and played a major role in several other important battles. He was also in charge of French troops during the final battle of the war, which saw the defeat and surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781.

Having read virtually nothing about either the French or the American revolutions, I did not realize – until reading For Liberty and Glory just how disappointed the fledgling American nation was for the support of the French. Successive French kings helped bankroll the American revolution, and hundreds of French officers and thousands of soldiers and sailors took part in some of the most brutal battles of the American Revolutionary War.

Ironically, French participation in the American Revolutionary War helped sow the seeds for the French Revolution which saw the overthrow of King Louis XVI (16th), in October 1789. The royal treasury had borrowed millions of livres (the French currency at the time) and was heavily indebt as a result. The only recourse the court at Versailles had to repay its massive debt was to raise taxes and prices on essential foods like bread, which only helped fuel the call for the overthrow of the King.

Compounding the royal court's problems, were the hundreds of French officers and thousands of French troops and sailors returning from America, most of whom were infused with the idea of, and support for a French Republic. And none was more committed to this cause than the Marquis de Lafayette.

James R. Gaines is a wonderful storyteller, and skillfully weaves together the major players on these two revolutionary stages. No stone appears to be left unturned, no letter unread, and no intrigue left unexamined. The highs and lows of both revolutions are examined in great detail, and again I learned much about the French revolution that had previously been unknown to me.

I knew about the fall of the Bastille, the tumbrel laden carts filled with hapless Frenchmen and women on their way to the guillotine, and the incidental death by guillotine of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. But I did not realize just how widespread and horrific the blodshed became, as the various forces battled for the control of France. I knew next to nothing about the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) unleashed by Robespierre, which according to archival records show that over 16,500 people died under the guillotine, although some historians note that as many as 40,000 accused prisoners may have been summarily executed without trial or died awaiting trial.

In the end Robespierre himself went to the guillotine in 1794, but that did not end the slaughter in France until the French Revolution finally came to an end five years later in 1795.

There is so much to recommend for Liberty and Glory: Washington, Lafayette, and Their Revolutions by James R. Gaines. In deed, I am now looking for a good book or two about the French Revolution in particular, since I am sure there is much more to learn about that period in French history.

***** Highly Recommended