Booker T Washington's Influence on the Course of African-American Life Through Education

Booker T. Washington who had only managed to get a primary education that allowed his probationary admittance to the Hampton Institute after his emancipation from slavery through the 1865 proclamation by Abraham Lincoln, proved such an exemplary student, teacher, and speaker that the principal and founder of Hampton Samuel C. Armstrong recommended him to Alabamans who were trying to establish a school for African Americans in their state to lead them in their effort.

But Washington preferred to become a teacher first in his home town in Tinkersville, West Virginia. He served there for three years. In 1878 he left to attend Wayland Seminary in Washington DC, but stayed on for only six months. In 1879 Armstrong asked him to return to the Hampton Institute as a teacher. Washington did so.

In 1881, upon the recommendation of Hampton University founder Samuel C. Armstrong and Tuskegee's governing body, even though such positions had always been held by whites up until that time, he was hired as the first principal of a similar school being founded in Alabama, . the new normal school -achers' college- in Alabama called Tuskegee Institute. It was founded under a charter from the Alabama legislature for the purpose of training teachers in Alabama.

They found the energetic and visionary leader they bought in Washington. Washington since became the first principal of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. July 4, 1881, the first day of school at Tuskegee Institute, was a humble beginning, The new school was initially using space rented from a local church with two small buildings, no equipment, and very little money. The next year, Washington purchased a former plantation, which became the permanent site of the campus. He built it into a center of learning and industrial and agricultural training. in Tuskegee, Alabama. Tuskegee's program provided students with both academic and voluntary training. The students, under Washington's direction, built their own buildings, produced their own food, and provided for most of their basic necessities. The Tuskegee faculty utilized each of these activities to teach the students basic skills that they could share with African American communities through the South.

Even though Tuskegee provided an academic education and instruction for teachers, it placed more emphasis on providing young black boys with practical skills such as carpentry and masonry.Under Washington's care both the school and Washington grew to be world famous, making lasting and substantial contributions to the South and to the United States.

One of Booker Washingron's main problems was always finding enough money to keep the institution running. The support he received from the state was either generous nor stable enough to build the kind of school he wanted. So he had to raise the money himself by going on speaking tours and soliciting contributions. As head and founder of the Institute, he traveled the country unceasingly to raise funds from blacks and whites alike. Soon he became a well-known speaker. He received a lot of money from white northerners. For they were impressed with the work he was doing and his non-threatening racial views.He thus lured industrialists like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller who would donate money on a regular basis.

Booker Washington spent the rest of his life improving the school so that when he died, in 1915 the Tuskegee Institute boasted 100 buildings, 1,500 students, a variety of programs and $ 2 million. By then Tuskegee's endowment had grown to over $ 1.5 million, compared to the initial $ 2,000 annual appropriation.

The institute illustrates Washington's aspirations for his race. For during his lifetime, many African Americans who were formerly slaves and who did not have an education were provided with opportunities to learn voluntary skills and obtain an education. He thought former slaves would gain acceptance through education and financial independence. His theory was, that by providing these skills, African Americans would play their part in society so gaining acceptance by white Americans. He believed that they would ever gain full civil rights by showing themselves to be responsible, reliable American citizens.

In 1895, Washington was asked to speak at the opening of the Cotton States Exposition, an unprecedented honor for an African American. His Atlanta Compromise speech explained his major thesis, that blacks could secure their constitutional rights through their own economic and moral advancement rather than through legal and political changes. Although his conciliatory stand angered some blacks who feared it would encourage the foes of equal rights, whites approved of his views. Thus his major achievement was to win over diverse elements among southern whites, without which support the programs he envisioned and thought into being would have been impossible.

Although not everyone agreed with Booker, he became a respected leader who helped many schools and institutions gain pledges and support from the government and donors. From this position of leadership he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman for African Americans.

It was these non-threatening racial views that cave Washington the appellation "The Great Accomodater". He believed that blacks should not push to attain equal civil and political rights with whites. That it was best to concentrate on improving their economic skills and the quality of their character. The burden of improvement resting squarely on the shoulders of the black man. Occasionally they would earn the respect and love of the white man, and civil and political rights would have accrued as a matter of course. This was a very non-threatening and popular idea with a lot of whites.

Am I Eligible for Diversion in DC Superior Court, Washington, DC

What is diversion in the District of Columbia?

1st and foremost you should always explore diversion options even if you believe you are the most innocent person on the planet. You can control the out of the case. You take the control away from the government and if you complete the required course of action your case will usually get disissued.

Therefore, if you run into a criminal defense attorney who says he never receivers diversion for his client – Do not hire him.

In the District of Columbia there are 2 prosecuting entities. The US Attorney's Office for District of Columbia prosecutes most misdemeanors and felonies. The office of attorneys general's office prosecutes most traffic and misdemeanor cases.

Diversion in the District of Columbia means that the US Attorney's Office or Office of Attorney General will not violate the case if you agree to abide by certain conditions. The case is diverted from prosecution for 4 to 6 months where you the defendant agree to perform various conditions such as community service, undergo drug treatment, or mental health treatment. Some diversion options require you to plead guilty and then after certain conditions are met the plaintiff will allow you to withdraw your guilty plea after you have completed the agreed task.

Diversion options are constantly changing in the District of Columbia. You should seek an experienced lawyer who knows the ins and outs of DC Superior Court. It may not be in your best interest to hire a "big time lawyer" who does not regularly practice in Superior Court because the diversion options change regularly and notice is not publicly broadcast to the bar association. Furthermore, Counselors regularly change the diversion options based on the needs of the community.

Generally, for a defendant to be eligible for diversion options he can not be convoked of or served probation or parole for firearms offs, sex offsets (with the exception of solicitation of prostitution) or violent felony offenses within the past ten years. Please be mindful that the US attorneys and Attorney General has completed discretion and may bar an individual from diversion regardless of qualification based on other reasons.

Lastly, diversion may have immigration consequences so you need to seek a qualified criminal attorney who knows immigration policies or at least consult with an immigration attorney if you have any questions.

As always contact a lawyer to help you through this process.

Was George Washington Genuinely Short? His Mattress Was

Right after visiting a few historical websites, particularly soon after seeing the tiny matters; just one is usually left asking a question. Why is the bed so modest? As contemporary beds get larger and larger is looks odd that even presidents would have such tiny beds.

The major factor was not height that drve the bed size, but health. Very first of all, a bed mattress was not the hygienic, clean, comfortable foam and stuffing of our globe. Innerspring mattresses will not be invented till right after Planet War 1. Rather, mattresses can be filled with cotton, wool, straw, as well as other "soft" filling. Buttons along with other quilting strategies could have been employed to keep the stuffing in place. These mattresses would most likely close today's contemporary sleeping bags rather than the inner spring structures 1 sleeps on daily.

With less than ideal cleaning strategies this stuffing could most likely be infested with a variety of insects. Would a single have felt rested knowing what was probably to be in that mattress? Adults would probably sleep sitting up in bed. Hanging about the size in the home and number of rooms in it young youngsters may well even be sleeping at the end on the bed. If this sounds uncomfortable, do not forget that an additional bed mattress was usually placed for the floor at the end on the bed for the favorite servant or slave in the family.

For servants or slaves outside the home a quilt would need to suffice. Functioning slaves have been usually given 1 quilt per year. Think how long even a well made blanket would last, if it was all one particular had for bedding. Little children would sometimes not even get this ration, but would rather share those of their parents or siblings. Others inside the community may possibly attempt to sew their very own blankets, but this will be done right after functioning a full day for the masters and then any cooking or cleaning of their very own homes. Servants had been paid wages, but would most likely have been completely responsible for purchasing their very own bedding and food.

Some contemporary doctors have also noted that lying down could possibly have been viewed as harder for the heart which would have already additional susceptible to heart disease due to the rich and fatty foods prevalent in a wealthy persons diet. There may well have been completely superstitions at play too regarding laying flat on ones back in bed as being the position from the dead. Lower class persons would have obviously had to share any soft bedding that they had with the entire household making any raised bed for laying themselves out a true luxury.

So whatever the considering behind it, a single can see from historical evidence that although the bed mattress are generally quite short the folks who rested in them had been absolutely not remarkably little. Considering back to George Washington (who was a career soldier); Following Valley Forge, and also the other battle beds he slept in, would not the bed mattresses of Mount Vernon were luxurious indeed. It would not probably have mattered to him how modest they seem these days.

In Review: For Liberty and Glory: Washington, Lafayette, and Their Revolutions

Over the past year or two, I have rekindled my interest in history and some of the greatest events of the past several hundred years.

Because of my two extended visits to America I have been particularly interested in the early history of the United States, and have read numerous books charting the birth and development of that nation, and have many others I hope to read as time allows.

F or Liberty and Glory: Washington, Lafayette, and Their Revolutions by James R. Gaines deals with two of the most important revolutionary periods in American and French history, and the two principal players in both revolutions.

Across 500 pages Gaines tracks the parallel paths of George Washington, the first President of the newly formed United States, and the Marquis de Lafayette, the man who could have been the first president of the French Republic, but who denied the position.

Although I was familiar with some American place names bearing the name Lafayette and Fayetteville, and had walked along Lafayette Street in Manhattan on numerous occasions, I must admit to being completely ignorant of the Marquis de Lafayette, and the role he played in both the American and French revolutions.

I do not know if every American city or town bearing the name Fayette, Fayetteville, and Lafayette owe their title to the Marquis de Lafayette, but it is entirely possible. Certainly, innumerable streets, avenues, French and American naval vessels, educational institutions, US counties, subway stations, parks and city squares, and other landmarks do owe their names to him.

Lafayette, who full name was the jaw breaking, Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette (and who shall, for the sake of brevity, hereafter be referred to mostly as Lafayette), was a French aristocrat and military officer, who at the age of just 19 years sailed to the New World to join the American Revolutionary War against France's age-old enemy, Britain. In the process he became one of George Washington's closest aides and confidante's and one the American revolution's most well-known, and well-considered generals.

Lafayette, himself was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania, not long after his arrival in America, and played a major role in several other important battles. He was also in charge of French troops during the final battle of the war, which saw the defeat and surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781.

Having read virtually nothing about either the French or the American revolutions, I did not realize – until reading For Liberty and Glory just how disappointed the fledgling American nation was for the support of the French. Successive French kings helped bankroll the American revolution, and hundreds of French officers and thousands of soldiers and sailors took part in some of the most brutal battles of the American Revolutionary War.

Ironically, French participation in the American Revolutionary War helped sow the seeds for the French Revolution which saw the overthrow of King Louis XVI (16th), in October 1789. The royal treasury had borrowed millions of livres (the French currency at the time) and was heavily indebt as a result. The only recourse the court at Versailles had to repay its massive debt was to raise taxes and prices on essential foods like bread, which only helped fuel the call for the overthrow of the King.

Compounding the royal court's problems, were the hundreds of French officers and thousands of French troops and sailors returning from America, most of whom were infused with the idea of, and support for a French Republic. And none was more committed to this cause than the Marquis de Lafayette.

James R. Gaines is a wonderful storyteller, and skillfully weaves together the major players on these two revolutionary stages. No stone appears to be left unturned, no letter unread, and no intrigue left unexamined. The highs and lows of both revolutions are examined in great detail, and again I learned much about the French revolution that had previously been unknown to me.

I knew about the fall of the Bastille, the tumbrel laden carts filled with hapless Frenchmen and women on their way to the guillotine, and the incidental death by guillotine of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. But I did not realize just how widespread and horrific the blodshed became, as the various forces battled for the control of France. I knew next to nothing about the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) unleashed by Robespierre, which according to archival records show that over 16,500 people died under the guillotine, although some historians note that as many as 40,000 accused prisoners may have been summarily executed without trial or died awaiting trial.

In the end Robespierre himself went to the guillotine in 1794, but that did not end the slaughter in France until the French Revolution finally came to an end five years later in 1795.

There is so much to recommend for Liberty and Glory: Washington, Lafayette, and Their Revolutions by James R. Gaines. In deed, I am now looking for a good book or two about the French Revolution in particular, since I am sure there is much more to learn about that period in French history.

***** Highly Recommended

Deferred Prosecutions in Washington State

Deferred Prosecutions

Everyone knows that if you are facing a criminal charge, you can either plead guilty or go to trial. With a Driving Under the Influence charge in Washington State, there is another option: A Deferred Prosecution.

A Deferred Prosecution is a contract, nothing more. By entering into the contract, you are agreeing to do five things. If you do the five things then at the end of the contract, your criminal case is dismissed. While you are under the contract, you have not been convicted of the crime, which means: no jail time and no driver’s license suspension. This is a contract that you can only do once in your lifetime. The five things are required by statute; that means that a Judge must include all five in the contract.

Now the five things:

First, you must get an alcohol evaluation and the evaluation must say that you are an alcoholic – which means you will have two years of alcohol classes. A lesser evaluation will disqualify you from being granted a Deferred Prosecution.

Second, probation for five years. There are two kinds of probation: Active and Inactive. Active probation means that you will likely have a Probation Officer that you will have to report to (at least once) who will act as the enforcement arm of the court; making sure that you do the five things you’re supposed to under the contract. There is generally a fee for active probation. Although Courts vary across the State as to how much, it’s generally around $50 per month.

Inactive probation is where you no longer have a Probation Officer and your only requirement is good behavior, i.e. don’t get accused of any new criminal activity. Inactive probation generally has neither a monthly fee nor a probation officer, but can have a fee for periodic “record checks” to make sure there are no new criminal law violations.

Third, good behavior for five years. This requirement means you can have no new criminal law violations. This does not include (generally) speeding tickets or parking tickets – but anything that places you at risk for jail time will probably violate this requirement.

Fourth, go to a Victims Impact Panel. The VIP is a class where you listen to family members of people who have been killed by drunk drivers. It can vary in length but is typically two hours long.

Fifth, have an Ignition Interlock Device installed in any vehicle you drive. Although there is pending legislation that would allow you to drive an employer’s vehicle without an IID, at the time of this writing it has not been passed into law.

When does a Deferred Prosecution make sense?

There are two times when going through a Deferred Prosecution makes sense: First, if you have had a prior DUI within the last seven years; and Second, if you are accused of other crimes that happened within one week of the DUI charge.

As you can see by looking at the mandatory minimum sentencing requirements (See DUI Penalties []), a second DUI within a seven year period carries a significant amount of jail time, e.g. with a high BAC level you would be required to get 45 days of jail followed by 90 days of home detention and a driver’s license loss of 900 days (almost three years). A judge could impose more jail time, but not less. Most people cannot financially survive this type of sentence.

If you are accused of multiple crimes, including DUI, then a Deferred Prosecution can make sense- even for a first time DUI. For example, if you were accused of DUI, Reckless Driving, Possession of Marijuana, etc then the potential penalties could make the Deferred worthwhile since we could include those other crimes within the Deferred Prosecution contract.

Should I go through a Deferred Prosecution on my first DUI?

In most cases it does not make sense to use a Deferred Prosecution on a first DUI charge. There are three reasons for this.

First, the penalties for your first DUI are financially survivable. The highest mandatory minimum is two days in jail. See the DUI Penalties above. While this won’t be fun, it will most likely not cause you to lose your job.

Second, entering into a Deferred Prosecution counts as a prior for sentencing on any subsequent DUI convictions. If you are like most of the clients I have met with over the years, right now you’re thinking that you will never get another DUI as long as you live; but did you plan on getting this one? In most cases, it is better to save your Deferred Prosecution (since you can only do it once per lifetime) for a second DUI charge that you hope never comes. Think of it as an insurance policy that you hope you never need.

Third, a Deferred Prosecution is a real opportunity for someone with a significant alcohol or drug problem because it can delete the jail time and license suspension associated with a DUI conviction. However, some people are tempted to sign up for a Deferred without fully realizing that the Deferred will require two years of alcohol classes.

People run into problems in two ways:

1) A non-alcoholic defendant tempted by the good parts of a Deferred will resent having to go to the two years of alcohol classes. When the choice is presented to “blow off” one of the classes, they may since they didn’t really need the classes anyway. However, once you start missing classes, you can get expelled – which means you are now in violation of your Deferred Prosecution’s requirement for treatment.

2) If you are really an alcoholic, you need to face the possibility that you may relapse and get a second DUI. If that happens, a Deferred Prosecution can really save the day.

What should I watch out for with a Deferred Prosecution?

The most common problem encountered with a Deferred Prosecution is running out of money. The cost of treatment varies, but is always expensive. Some health insurance companies will cover the expense – so check with yours. There can be government help for people addicted to alcohol or drugs.

Once the Judge signs the Order for Deferred Prosecution, you will be bound by the contract’s terms. This means that even if the sole reason for getting kicked out of treatment is lack of financial ability to pay for it, you will still be in breach of the contract.

The way to avoid this problem is to look at the costs involved before you enter into the Deferred Prosecution.

What happens if I don’t comply with the contract?

If there is an allegation that you have breached one (or more) of the five requirements, the Court will schedule a hearing to determine what action to take. If you get convicted of a new DUI, the Court will have no choice but to revoke the Deferred Prosecution. An Attorney may not be able to stop the Court from revoking your Deferred but may be able to help with the sentence you receive. If you breach your contract in some other way, the Court will have discretion on what action to take. If this happens, call an attorney immediately. They can help you come up with a plan to save your Deferred Prosecution.

If the Court revokes your Deferred Prosecution, then the Judge will read the police reports submitted when you first entered the Deferred and probably find you guilty. There will be no jury trial and no witnesses. The Court will make its decision solely based on the police reports. In other words, if you breach the contract you will be found guilty of the underlying DUI. This means that the mandatory minimum probation times and driver’s license loss will start. It also means that the Court will determine the amount of fines and jail time to be imposed.


Deferred Prosecutions offer a fantastic opportunity for someone with a severe alcohol or drug addiction problem to get the help they need; while avoiding the draconian penalties associated with a DUI conviction. If you recognize you are an addict and are ready to make a change then the Deferred Prosecution program can be a godsend. If you aren’t an addict or are simply not ready to eliminate drugs or alcohol from your life, then don’t waste your one chance at this program; you may well regret it.

Fighting for Freedom and General Washington, By: Michael Justin Lee

Born as twins thirteen years prior, Alexander and Amanda Lee had been inseparable since that time. They had grown up in a loving household, a small farm in Virginia during the 1700's. Both found safety and support on this farm; as part of a famous family, their parents were able to provide them with a well-developed education, including tutoring in language and literature. They grow to be more than simply intelligent and learned, though. Through the attention of their parents and congregants of their local church, both Alexander and Amanda became quite skillful in the use of guns as well as hard labor on the farm. Through it all, the virtues of faith, patriotism and family became the focus of their lives.

When revolution swept through the colonies, however, they knew that they must be a part of the battle for independence from Britain. Having been brought up with stories of their famous uncle, Richard Lee, they wanted to experience all that the larger world had to offer, despite the dangers of war. Finding a way to join the battle became a passion for both. A larger boy, Alexander would be able to pass for sixteen, old enough to enlist properly in the Continental Army. Through a bit more trickery and cunning, Amanda would soon follow, learning fighting skills that would be necessary for the victory of the burgeoning military of the country that would be America. Along the way, they would meet the most illustrious figures of the time, including General Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Despite the challenges that they faced over the years, Alexander and Amanda remained true to their values ​​as well as each other.

In Fighting for Freedom and General Washington, Michael Justin Lee provides readers with an engrossing, historically-based novel for young adults. Although a tale of two youthful twins entering war might seem questionable at first glance, the plot is well executed and believable, avoiding many of the common pitfalls found in similar writings. The introduction of historical figures such as Washington and Franklin is not contrived but rather accurate based on their writings as well as their activities during the war. Too, these entrances of famous founding fathers and fighters are smoothly written and steer clear of lengthy paragraphs of explanatory material. Additionally, the language of the novel is appropriate for the time period and still readily understood by today's young readers. All things considered, Lee's novel has a well-paced plot, enjoyable writing style, and certainly contains a historical accuracy in its presentation.

Indeed, Lee has done an amazing job of writing a historical novel for young adults that will teach, inspire, and entertain. In a market that sees dominates by zombies and vampires, his Fighting for Freedom and General Washington certainly will appeal to more conservative readers who will appreciate the values ​​that form the basis for the work. Parents-especially those that are homeschooling or sometimes simply want to spur some interest in American history among their children-will find this novel a perfect starting point for discussion or perhaps a companion to related study. Written for younger readers, this novel is also appropriate for adult readers who want an easy and patriotic read. Michael Justin Lee's Fighting for Freedom and General Washington offers something for every reader and is a welcome addition to the young adult books now available.

Assisted Reproduction Opportunities and Legal Rights in Washington

For women across the globe, bearing and raising children is a wonderful opportunity that they hope to experience some day. Unfortunately, not all women are able to achieve this due to medical concerns. Through modern science, many women and couples are able to conceive or raise a child through assisted reproduction. With over 1% of live births in Washington state occurring with the help of assisted reproduction methods, it is easy to see that technology is helping many parents to expand their families. The applied methods vary depending on the situation, but in any scenario it is important to establish and understand the rights of all parties concerned.

Contracts are an essential part in any assisted reproduction situation, to establish guidelines such as visitation concerns, legal rights, and other matters. The arrangement in question is very personal to all parties involved, and the agreement can be adapted to fit every individual scenario. Contracts will help ensure that paperwork such as birth certificates are issued properly to avoid any conflicts that could cause problems through a child's life. An adoption attorney can be extremely helpful in assuring that all issues are fully addressed and both parties are happy with the arrangements.

Women can artificial conceive through a number of scenarios. Donated sperm may be used to impregnate a woman. Washington law outlines that in these scenarios the donor would have no legal rights to the resulting child, in addition to no legal or financial responsibility.

Women can also help other women conceive through gamete donation. This process involves medically stimulating ovum production and retrieval the ovum through a minimally invasive surgery. The resulting ova are then used to create an embryo that will be implanted into another woman's uterus to develop. This process is able to help women who are unable to produce ovum properly or women who are unable to safely house a fetus in their own uterus.

Even in the most seemingly straight-forward situations, contracts are imperative in establishing the rights of any donors, recipients, or other participants. Parenthood can excite surprising and personal feelings, and any parties changing their minds can cause a massive legal conflict if the agreement is not written down.

According to the Uniform Parentage Act, as defined in the Revised Code of Washington Section 26, if a woman gives birth through assisted reproduction her spouse is usually recognized as a legal parent of the child. To secure this role, however, it is sometimes advisable to legally adopt the child. For instance, for same-sex couples, if the mother's partner or spouse adopts the child it will greatly increase the chances of maintaining legal rights in all states.

Science has provided wonderful opportunities for aspiring parents across Washington, but it is important to take the legal steps necessary to ensure that the process is completed with no complications.

Frugal Travel Tips For Washington DC

You can not say you've seen the US without seeing Washington DC Although hotels are expensive and parking a challenge, the nation's capital is full of free attractions and things to do.

The White House And The Pentagon

Entrance to President's Park is free and gives the frugal traveler great views of the White House. The visitors center has some very nice permanent exhibits. Tours of the White House can be arranged for groups of 10 or more. However applications have to be received at least six months in advance.

Tours are also available of the Pentagon. These also have to be arranged well ahead of time.

Lincoln Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Washington Monument

The National Mall And Memorial Parks contain some of the US's most important monuments. These include The Lincoln Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument within walking distances of each other. The Mall itself is a great place to picnic and people watch. Entrance is free

Smithsonian Castle

When I think of the Smithsonian, I think of the Smithsonian Castle, the first building. Entrance as with all of the 17 Smithsonian buildings and the National Zoo is free. There are also free tours available. The building itself is beautiful. The exhibits? It's the Smithsonian.

National Museum of Natural History

Another Smithsonian Museum, the National Museum Of Natural History is a favorite with kids. They have tarantula feedings, dinosaurs, and preserved animals. As with all the Smithsonian Museums, the National Museum Of Natural History is free.

National Museum Of American History

Another free Smithsonian Museum, the National Museum Of American History showcases American culture and history. From Dorothy's ruby ​​red slippers to full sized locomotives, think of an American icon and you can likely find it in this museum.

Washington DC is full of free tourist attractions with American politics, history, and culture as the focus. The Smithsonian Museums alone, a great rainy day alternative, can take weeks to explore. The city is a must see for both American visitors and residents.

Royal Carlock Washington DC Hand Colored Photography

Royal Hubert Carlock (1899-1970) was born in Paris Crossing, Indiana. One of six children he was born to Benjamin and Ellen Carlock. After graduating from Indiana University, Carlock married Ethel Wohrer in 1917. He entered the U.S. Army near the end of World War I where he specialized in aerial photography as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and after the War had ended, the couple moved to Washington DC in 1918 where their first daughter was born.

After his discharge from the Army, Carlock secured employment with a photography firm named C.O Buckingham who at the time was producing hand-painted photographs of the chief tourist attractions in Washington, DC. This explains the obvious similarity in style between Carlock and Buckingham hand-colored pictures.

Ethel Carlock died in 1920 during an influenza epidemic, leaving Carlock a widower with a 15 month-old baby.

Carlock was fascinated by the architecture and national treasures found in our nation’s capital. He focused his photographic and hand-coloring skills on subjects found in-and-around the Washington DC area. The only photographer in his company, his black & white photographs were hand-painted in oils and sold to the multitude of tourists visiting our nation’s capital during the post World War I era.

In 1922 Carlock married his 2nd wife, Emma Clarke. In that same year he also left the employment of the Buckingham Studios and opened his own photography studio at 406 13th Street NW in Washington, DC. Carlock’s “Snappy Snap Shop” specialized in quick development of tourist’s film along with the sale of his increasingly famous hand-colored photographs of the Washington DC landmarks and monuments, including the White House, Jefferson Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, and Washington Monuments, the U.S. Capital Building, and of course, Washington’s colorful cherry blossoms. Working together as a team, Carlock took the pictures and Emma, along with other colorists, hand-tinted them.

We have seen Carlock pictures identified in three distinct manners:

• Matted pictures signed “Carlock” on the lower right corner beneath the picture, with or without a title lower left.

• Un-matted, close-framed pictures with “Carlock” being embossed on the lower-left corner of the actual picture.

• No marking on the picture or matting, but simply a “Carlock” picture label on the backing.

Jane Crandall has reported that Royal Carlock was her uncle and that both of her parents worked for him at some point. She also reported that her mother, Julia Carlock, was one of Carlock’s colorists and would bring pictures home to color in the evening. Jane Crandall also reported that many of the signatures found on Carlock pictures were actually signed by her mother.

Royal Carlock kept his business running into the 1940’s. Collector Myke Ellis has reported that the 1943 Polk Washington D.C. Address Directory listed Royal Carlock as working at 913 Pennsylvania Avenue. Even during the Depression years when so many other photographers saw their businesses either decline or closed their doors, Carlock’s business flourished due primarily to the constant high level of tourism, and the large and growing number of people who were gainfully employed by the U.S. Government.

Although his photographs usually sold best at cherry blossom time, for several years Carlock also produced a Christmas Card which contained a hand-colored photo of Washington DC. These are considered quite rare with collectors today.

As with all other early 20th c. hand-colored photographers, the advent of color film led to the decline in Carlock’s hand-colored photography business. The primary emphasis of his business turned to photo refinishing until 1957 when he retired from the photography business to devote his life to conservation.

In 1962 his 40-year marriage to Emma dissolved and in 1964 he married Grace Diane Knapp.

Suffering from cardiac problems during the final years of his life, Royal Carlock died from a heart attack in 1970. His ashes were buried on a small isle in a lagoon at the National Isaac Walton League Conservation Park near Gaithersburg, MD.

Carlock pictures are still relatively inexpensive and quite affordable. Their low price, good quality, and interesting subject matter will probably continue to make them collectible. The only limitation is that there are only approximately 10 different Washington DC scenes to collect. The next time you see a Washington DC picture in a shop or show, take a closer look at it. It will probably be a Royal Carlock hand-colored photograph.

Watchers of the Past ((On the 50th Year Reunion, Washington High School, St. Paul, MN)(1965))

I have touched the age where it is easy, or perhaps as easy, to part with the departed as well as with the living-

That said, part of my life shall stay behind with you, my dear old High School Alumni, old friends!

And here is that tribute to that end.

Now that I see that my life is in the wintery season of God’s prearranged years, I realize how preoccupied, how pensive, how pondering it has been.

I’ve taken to rethinking the journals in my mind of those High School years and days so long ago-

As now it is the 50th Anniversary Year, and a forthcoming reunion but a few steps away…

To an old man’s weakness, I`ve learned: pain, love, fear, God, hunger, things that cannot be learned in books, or by hearsay, but experienced, practiced, expressed; by, travel, fortitude, and perseverance!

I’ve learned the long way-for some things take time, such as understanding the human failings of others, and mine!

And surely you have too!

To act instead of reacting, to my thinking, not my feelings-

To focus on the good and clean in the world, not all is contaminated!

By not judging another’s sin, if not knowing its cause!

And I’ve learned them quite well, as perhaps many of us have.

And as they say, the hard way!

Always for me, in my younger day, the hard way.

How vain it is for me to think anyone should remember me, from those far-off days, perhaps a few!

Where fell tenderly in my youth, a rain of life, where now falls the shadow of death, and a few last requests

I hope no more regrets!

The trophies and the nobler spoils of time I leave behind.

How does one say, I’m still here I hope you are! Knowing so well, so many have gone!

So many voices crying from the dust.

Not all as of old, but some with the blaze of steel from war long ago, and the voice of war’s command, takes precedence!

I have been there, and beheld the deathless star upon the brows of men.

And whose streets with tears are wet, from the dark and cruel state of some untimely death, those once we knew from High School:

Dying before their time, whose light they craved, ere, now a world away: yet set free, save they have found their way, by and by, through the true vine where every branch He purgeth, has beareth fruit, and brings forth more fruit!

Alas! How distant they are to us, to us watchers of the past!

Left behind, to celebrate our once memorable youth, and their once earthly presence too… I give to them with earnest, the laurels from my brow!

As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, without the vine, lest he not be withered and cast into the fire… ?

Thus, I pray He abideth in me, and I in him, so I can bring honor unto them-

Lo! In what shadowy and mysterious ways we all went on to our allotted ways; O to those everlasting gates, those once far-off gates we so longed to chase:

For a fairer day that waits, for new splendors and dawns, selfish bonds, waiting for love to be, and sometimes unfound, only to be set free to search again! And sometimes to no end!

Living from one season to another beyond seasons of dismay, seeking always seeking God’s bountiful grace-

As if in a race!

I for one see life brief, broken and imposing, as if hastening to its end, with tales to tell:

At times swineherd drinking, rooted in my youth sly and shy, and light with my thighs, chasing milk skinned fleshly women, by the moon-shade light, hissing like a viper for wayside brides!

At times too blunt, like a fox an ox, with a pretext:

After butterfat goose-shaped girls, with breasts full of honey, snout blunt and drunk in a uproar vomiting out my youth:

Quick at love, and so I was until I found my just pilgrimage.

And perhaps, so many of us were, not so unlike the white owl who searches the night, for the worm, the bird or the mouse, claws that could rip out a throat, to swallow up and spit out: under a dipping moon, high as a kite, like a dropped camel, with a twisted leg.

To such sultry biding ways, I SAY, Oh, time enough, those memories creep cold that was when I had a coal black, black soul!

That was when I was half a man, and then some: sizzling, gusty young man, the other part was all beast.

Never dying for a woman, but simmering like a calf in milky grass, but always finding a cat in the flame.

I for one see life long, long enough, if you have lived enough.

Not waiting for tomorrow, yet awaiting a dream that shall not altogether die, before I die, to awake to my divine journey

-but we often get lost along the way, as I did, then found to follow one’s dream, once again!

If indeed, God permits!

The Dream, a lament, to find it I had to tiptoe shy in the telltale woods, and I could not find it until I was a gusty near middle-aged man and a half, where I slapped the rude owl from its branch and he seesawed down to the ground, I wooed his wicked eyes, for he was a demon in disguise, who had followed me half my life-

But I had learned in life how to track his fiery prints.

Once leaned, never forgotten!

And once found dispensed of him: to earth, air, water, and fire with some miracle muscle, and a prayer, and there I saw him this hunchbacked, lulled black ghoul, with dingle-torn eyes hanging deep in dark-spacious ebon framed, cold lifeless sockets, –

Sockets with expanse, and no gleam of light…

They contained no heat, there he stood until crock-crow in midair, soaring out my window, cawing for his lost home!

And then he evaporated as if into some willy-nilly, williwaw dew!

Into some muster seed in some mildew meadow…

Strange to say, but I shall, have we not all been between the devil and the deep sea?

Stuck in a desperate strait?

Where God, or his seraph steps in, whispers: “No more… pretense, it’s time for the truth, no avoiding the issue, -lest, ay!” And that ay!… is deep regret!

And sometimes we listen, and sometimes not, and sometimes we doubt and seem not to be able to control it!

Especially standing at an empty threshold, the unknown, until the door is pushed open and we are shown absoluteness-

All such things we must go through, after we leave High School!

Wherein, there wasn’t any guessing by then.

Yes, I’ve seen enough of the devil, and perhaps so have you.

Some of us have reached beyond our dreams, with Almighty God’s blessings, I have tried, reaching pinnacles against the dawn! Did I say ‘tried?’ I have reached them.

Going beyond our limits, for we came out of a daring age.

Now, seeing how small we are in the greater plan,

– Now with age, we must draw up against the Night our last plan, or forever plight, if I dare call it that!

Each face facing the best-beloved’s face.

And let me end this poem by saying: to watchers of the past,

Be ye lifted up, for a fairer day awaits.

For on this short day we will surely sail, liken to ship-shaped clouds, with guardian angels, forever and day, by all the vows given by the King of Kings…

-to the ignited mount, by Heaven’s gates, to be judged and weighed, -once called Calvary!

No: 4756/4-2 & 3-2015 © All Rights Reserved by: Dlsiluk

Drawing by the author2014 © Dennis L. Siluk Dr. h.c.

Note: This poem is a tribute by the author to his longtime schoolmates, of 1965, it is not associated, nor does it represent the feelings or ideas in any way with anyone other than himself, to include: organizations, or planning of the forthcoming event for the ’50th Anniversary Reunion of Washington High School, 1965′ St. Paul, Minnesota’ due in September, of 2015. This is a private work of the Poet Laureate, Dr. Dennis L. Siluk, and is independent of any group.